Our understanding of how genes eventually relate to brain disorders continues to evolve, and along with it, the terminology:
Genome: it started here. Technology at first let us have brief peeks at “neighborhoods” of genes. As we developed methods for looking at neighborhoods with relation to each other and their relative production rates, we became able to consider
Proteome (integrity of finished protein product’s structure) and Transcriptome (how RNA plays its middleman role) make sense as factors in how much impact the genome could have on an individual’s health. But wait, there’s more, lots more:
Metabolome: the flip side of that productivity coin: if the protein made from the genetic instruction manual is being broken down in an abnormal way, you might have too little or too much of the protein, even if your body knows how to make it.
Connectome: specific to neuroscience. How your brain regions are physically connected to one another (which includes what structure you were born with and what structure you may acquire from stroke or head injury or infection) plays a role in how well or not well the proteins function in that brain.
Epigenome: I used to conflate this with the next section. This refers to the methylation process, which is a way to flip a railroad track signal to enhance or inhibit the transcriptome.
Interactome: the interactions of genes with each other (2 wrongs can make a right or there can be some wonderful synergies)
Exposome: a way to throw environmental exposure, life changes, accidents into one category.
For more, see Dr. Andy Saykin (and ADNI Genetics Core)’s review.
The title for this post refers to how we medically name tumors (rapid unintentional growths) after the cell type + oma, e.g., meningioma.